Bioidentical Hormones 101 
The Book, by Jeffrey Dach MD

Chapter 39. Heart Disease, Ascorbate, Lysine and Linus Pauling

Section Ten: Preventing and Reversing Heart Disease

Chapter 39. Heart Disease, Ascorbate, Lysine and Linus Pauling

The Steam Roller is Not Joking

I once had a conversation with a cardiologist friend of mine in which I casually mentioned the Linus Pauling Theory of heart disease, and the idea that non-toxic nutritional supplements such as vitamin C and two amino acids could prevent and reverse heart disease.  The response from my cardiologist friend was hearty laughter that anyone would even suggest such a nonsensical idea, and surely you must be joking?  My cardiologist friend and the rest of the mainstream medical system has no clue about the steamroller coming to health care aimed at the huge profits from diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, a multibillion dollar industry in the US.  The Cardiac Catheterization Lab and Cardiac Bypass Surgery Programs will be flattened, the first casualties of the internet revolution, providing information about a safe and cheap program of nutritional supplements to reverse heart disease, the Linus Pauling Protocol.  Time has come for the old dinosaurs to go.  In the near future, thanks to Linus Pauling, heart disease will become a curiosity of the past, like the disappearance of gastric ulcers after the invention of antacids and antibiotics.

The Linus Pauling Protocol - Vitamin C

Vitamin C Deficiency Has Major Impact on Collagen Production

Ascorbate, also called Vitamin C, is required to make a protein called collagen which is the major component of connective tissues.  The lack of Vitamin C is a deficiency disease called Scurvy. Why is Collagen Important?  Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body.   Collagen is the structural protein used to make connective tissues, bones, teeth, hair, and arteries.  Strong collagen is important for a strong body.  Basic medical science tells us that Vitamin C is required for strong collagen.  How does this work? Vitamin C is required for lysyl hydroxylase, an enzyme responsible for attaching the lysine residues together on adjacent collagen strands. (38) Vitamin C deficiency results in weakened collagen strands caused by disrupted lysine cross linking. The resulting weakened collagen results in widespread problems in the connective tissues, bones, teeth, skin, hair, arteries, etc. (35, 38, 39,42)

Full Blown Scurvy - Collagen Falls Apart

In the full blown Vitamin C deficiency disease called Scurvy, the structural elements of the body literally fall apart.  Collagen is broken down and not replaced. The joints wear out, the small arteries begin to crack and degenerate, the skin shows easy bruising and bleeding as small vessels rupture throughout the body, and the teeth  may loosen and fall out. 

Linus Pauling: Heart Disease is a Chronic Scurvy Condition

Linus Pauling was unquestionably the greatest scientist of the twentieth century. All of modern biochemistry and molecular biology chemistry is based on Linus Pauling's work, especially his discovery and elucidation of the chemical bond.  Pauling is the only scientist to be awarded two unshared Nobel prizes.   Pauling's later years were devoted to study of heart disease, and in 1989 he published "A Unified Theory of Human Cardiovascular Disease,” in which he states that atherosclerotic plaques in heart disease are actually part of a repair process, to repair the arterial damage caused by chronic vitamin C deficiency. (15)  In essence, Pauling said that heart disease is a manifestation of chronic scurvy, and atherosclerotic plaque is a mechanism evolved to repair or patch blood vessels and arteries damaged by chronic vitamin C deficiency.  Linus Pauling also said that atherosclerotic plaque formation can be prevented or reversed with vitamin C, lysine and proline.  These are nutritional supplements available at any health food store for a few dollars.

Atherosclerotic Plaques Found at Maximal Mechanical Stress

Atherosclerotic plaques are not found randomly distributed throughout the arterial tree, rather distribution is restricted to sites of high mechanical stress such as bifurcations, and areas of motion such as the surface of the heart (coronary arteries). In the early 1950's, a Canadian, G. C. Willis, MD, made these same observations, and they have been confirmed by 60 years of coronary and peripheral arteriography at major medical centers. (1-4) 

Exposed Lysine Crosslinks from Damaged Collagen is Site of LipoProtein (a) attachment and Plaque Formation

Imagine stepping on your garden hose a thousand times a day.  You will soon notice cracks in the wall of the garden hose.  This is the same process that happens in the artery.  As these cracks open up, the collagen strands in the wall of the artery are teased apart.  The collagen strands are normally bound together with lysine crosslinks which are now teased apart and exposed to the circulating blood stream.  The Lysine residues look like little flags waving from the damaged collagen strand.  The exposed Lysine strands are available for binding to circulating Lipoprotein (a), a special form of cholesterol that has lysine receptors, and is known to increase heart disease risk.  This attachment of lipoprotein (a) to the free lysine residues of damaged collagen initiates the atherosclerotic process.  Over time, this process builds larger plaque deposits which eventually narrow the inner diameter of the artery causing a blockage, or leads to plaque rupture and thrombosis, a catastrophic event which may cause heart attack or sudden death.  Animal experiments in genetically modified  "knocked out" mice with no lysine binding sites on lipoprotein (a) show a fivefold reduction in atherosclerotic plaque formation.(50-51)

Animals Make Vitamin C , But You Can't

We humans cannot make vitamin C in our liver as all other animals do.  We humans had a genetic mutation in our ancestry 50 million years ago which "knocked out" the final enzyme in the hepatic synthesis of vitamin C.  The missing enzyme is called GLO (gulano lactone oxidase).  Primates such as gorillas, chimpanzees and orangutans also share this same GLO mutation and cannot make vitamin C.  In addition,  all primates share with us humans the same susceptibility to develop heart disease.

All Animals Can Make Vitamin C, but the Guinea Pig Can't

Except for humans and primates, all other animals have the three enzymes in the liver which can synthesize vitamin C from glucose (a simple sugar). One major exception is the guinea pig, which is really a rodent and not a pig.  The guinea pig, for some unexplained reason, shares with humans the GLO genetic mutation and also lacks the GLO enzyme just like we do.  This makes the guinea pig an ideal experimental model for human diseases.  By the way, although animals that make vitamin C never get heart disease, the guinea pig which lacks the ability to synthesize vitamin C, DOES GET HEART DISEASE.

Animals That Make Vitamin C,  Don't Get Atherosclerotic Heart Disease

I thought this was worth repeating. (note: here I am referring to atherosclerotic vascular heart disease in animals.  Dogs and Cats DO succumb to other common types of heart disease such as cardiomyopathy and heart worm etc.)

Animals That Don't Make Vitamin C, Do Get Atherosclerotic Heart Disease

This should be starting to become clear now.

Animal Scientific Support for the Pauling Unified Theory

As mentioned above, guinea pigs are especially well suited to study atherosclerosis because guinea pigs are unable to make their own vitamin C, and in addition, they develop atherosclerotic plaques similar to those found in humans.    G. C. Willis, a Canadian doctor, conducted research with guinea pigs in the 1950's showing that guinea pigs deprived of dietary vitamin C developed atherosclerotic plaques, while guinea pigs given plentiful vitamin C were protected. (52)  In addition, guinea pigs fed a vitamin C deficient diet had elevated Lipoprotein (a) levels along with increased atherosclerotic plaque formation in the arteries.  (53)

Similar findings were demonstrated in genetically engineered mice lacking the GLO enzyme. The GLO deficient mice fed a vitamin C deficient diet developed atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta with characteristic deranged collagen crosslinking. GLO deficient mice fed vitamin C were protected. (38)(54)

Human Studies Supporting the Linus Pauling Theory

Optometrist, Dr. Sydney Bush's retinal artery observations support the Pauling theory.  Using modern equipment to non-invasively photograph the retinal arteries of the eye before and after Vitamin C supplementation in humans, Dr. Bush has documented reversal of atherosclerotic plaque with Vitamin C supplementation. (54)  Coronary Calcium Score studies also support the Pauling Theory with favorable results after treatment with Vitamin C and Lysine.  (55) Anecdotal case evidence of reversal of heart disease can be found in the medical literature and documented in Owen Fonorow's book.(56)  In these cases, advanced heart disease regresses after supplementation with the Linus Pauling Protocol.  This is highly significant because the natural course of heart disease is progression, and any intervention that alters the natural course of a disease process is highly significant.

Message boards are a source of anecdotal cases reports supporting the Linus Pauling Protocol.   The Track Your Plaque Message Boards have documented many cases of regression of atherosclerotic disease with protocols which include vitamin C as well as other nutritional supplements. (58) Why no drug company sponsored double blind placebo controlled studies? Since there are no patents involved for natural supplements, and no drugs involved, no drug company would ever invest the 250 million dollars to fund such a study with no potential for financial return. 

The Physician's Health Study - Don't Waste Your Money On Vitamins!!

Using public funds, the NIH (National Institute of Health) funded a large study called The Physicians' Health Study II which evaluated Vitamins C and E in heart disease and was published Nov. 9, 2008 in JAMA by Howard D. Sesso.(59)  The study found that Vitamin C and E did not prevent mortality from heart disease; results which are completely opposite to massive previously published research and anecdotal case reports.  A closer look shows a few glaring errors in study design.  The Linus Pauling Protocol was not followed.  The dosage of vitamin C was set too low, at one tenth the dosage recommended by the Linus Pauling protocol, and lysine was not provided.  While the Sesso study showed no mortality benefit, many previous studies such as the Enstrom Study showed a striking a 42% reduction in cardiovascular mortality and a 35% reduction in all-cause mortality over 6 years for those with the highest vitamin C intake.  (60)  The Paul Knecht study showed a 25% reduction in Heart Disease risk with daily 700 mg Vitamin C.(61)    Two medical studies from Japan and Finland showed that Vitamin C reduces risk for stroke,  an example of atherosclerosis involving the cerebral arteries.(62-63)  There are many more like these.

Since favorable results would be financially destructive to the drug and hospital industries, a cynic might suggest that vested interests were at work in Sesso's study intending to discredit vitamin C (as documented many times in the past with examples of corporate influence in medical research).  It is not difficult to design a medical study to fail.  I regard this as merely another example of the information war waged by corporate mainstream medicine against natural medicine.  Enstrom showed that increasing vitamin C intake had a dramatic 40% reduction in mortality benefit which exceeds any statin drug study ever conducted.

Linus Pauling Protocol for Prevention and Reversal of Plaque

If heart disease is chronic scurvy, caused by chronic vitamin C deficiency, then it makes sense to supplement with vitamin C in the amounts needed to make strong collagen and prevent arterial damage from mechanical stress.  In addition, Pauling devised a clever yet simple method to address the issue of Lipoprotein (a) attaching to the lysine residues on the damaged collagen fibers in the arterial wall.  He recommended supplementing with 2-4 grams of lysine per day.  The additional lysine in the blood stream attaches to the receptor sites on the lipoprotein (a) molecules, inactivating the lipoprotein (a) and preventing it from attaching to the arterial wall.  This prevents the initiation of the atherosclerotic process.  In addition, Vitamin C and Lysine are both important precursors for building strong collagen which makes strong arteries.  In addition to Lysine, some of the collagen crosslinking is done with another amino acid called Proline, so proline was also added to the treatment protocol.

A good book on the Linus Pauling protocol is “Practicing Medicine Without a License”, by Owen Fonorow,  dedicated to the 1992 Linus Pauling Protocol for prevention and reversal of heart disease.(64-66)     Another excellent book on the subject of Vitamin C and heart disease is, “Stop America's #1 Killer”, by Thomas Levy MD, JD.(67)   Another excellent resource for prevention and reversal of heart disease is the William Davis MD, “Track Your Plaque” blog and web site.(58)

What is the Linus Pauling Protocol?

Linus Pauling Protocol for Prevention and Reversal of Heart Disease

1)      L-Ascorbate (Vitamin C) 5-6 grams a day in divided doses

2)      L-Lysine 5 grams a day in divided doses

3)      L-Proline 2-3 grams a day in divided doses

4)      The Tocotrienol form of Vitamin E.


These supplements can be obtained at any the health food store as tablets or capsules for 40 to 50 dollars a month. 

Opposition to the Linus Pauling Protocol by Mainstream Medicine

If you are facing the prospects of coronary artery bypass surgery, you might ask the obvious question: Why hasn't my cardiologist told me about this information and started me on the Linus Pauling Protocol?   Most cardiologists either don't know about it or ignore it because of the information war going on between mainstream medicine and natural medicine.  Cardiologists read medical journals which regularly run incorrect and biased articles saying Vitamin C is useless for prevention and reversal of heart disease, such as the 2008 Sesso study.  Diagnosing and treating heart disease with expensive tests and procedures such as coronary angiography, angioplasty, stenting and bypass operations is the most profitable part of hospital big business.  That's why hospitals compete and fight with each other over the rights to expand and build larger cardiac cath labs and cardiac bypass operation programs.  These programs are huge money makers for the national hospital system.

What would happen if there was a cheap and effective way to reverse and prevent heart disease, (ie. the Linus Pauling Protocol)?  Heart disease would become an uncommon illness.  With fewer heart patients to treat, the multi-million dollar cardiac catheter labs and cardiac bypass programs at your local hospital would become obsolete and disappear.  This would be a financial catastrophe for mainstream medicine.

No More Construction Cranes?

With so much money and vested interest at stake, you can imagine why it is not prudent for a cardiologist to bring up the benefits of the Linus Pauling Protocol in friendly conversation while lunching in the Doctor's Dining Hall.  That would be an instant ticket off the medical staff roster and out the hospital door, and the end of a lucrative cardiology practice.  What cardiologist in their right mind would do that?  It is easier for the mainstream cardiologists to simply laugh it off as a joke and go back to the Cardiac Catheter Lab, do more procedures and make some money to pay their bills.  I certainly would.

Financial Disclosure:  I have no financial interest in any Vitamin C products, books or web sites mentioned in this article.  For references and links, see my web site:

References for Chapter 39. Heart Disease, Ascorbate, Lysine and Linus Pauling

(1) An Experimental Study of the Intimal Ground Substance in Atherosclerosis, G.C. Willis, Canad. M. A. J. Vol 69, 1953, p. 17-22

(2)  Serial Arteriography in Atherosclerosis, G. C. Willis, A. W. Light, W.S. Cow, Canad. M. A. J. Dec 1954, Vol 71, 1954, p. 562-568

(3) Ascorbic Acid Content of  Human Arterial Tissue, G. C. Willis, S. Fishman, Canad. M. A. J., April 1, 1955, Vol 72, Pg 500-503

(4) The Reversibility of Atherosclerosis, G. C. Willis, Canad. M. A. J., July 15, 1957, Voll 77., Pg 106-109


(6) Some Factors In The Causation of Intimal Hemorrhages in the Precipitation of Coronary Thrombi, J. C. Paterson, Canad. M. A. J., Feb 1941, Pg 114-120

(7) Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006; 3: 17.
Guinea pigs: A suitable animal model to study lipoprotein metabolism, atherosclerosis and inflammation by Maria Luz Fernandez and Jeff S Volek

(8) Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:10-20. Guinea Pigs as Models for Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Metabolism by Maria Luz 

(9) Japanese circulation journal Vol.35, No.12(19711200) pp. 1559-1565  EXPERIMENTAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS WITH ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY by FUJITANI TAKAO et al.

(10) Immunological evidence for the accumulation of lipoprotein(a) in the atherosclerotic lesion of the hypoascorbemic guinea pig. M Rath, L Pauling - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1990 - National Acad Sciences. Vol. 87, pp. 9388-9390, December 1990

(11) Hypothesis: lipoprotein (a) is a surrogate for ascorbate. M Rath, L Pauling - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1990 

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 August; 87(16): 6204–6207.  PMCID: PMC54501
Hypothesis: lipoprotein(a) is a surrogate for ascorbate. M Rath and L Pauling

(13)  Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 6(3-4): 144-46, 1991. Case Report: Lysine/Ascorbate-Related Amelioration of Angina Pectoris by Linus Pauling

(14)  Case Report: Lysine/Ascorbate-Related Amelioration of Angina Pectoris by Linus Pauling

A Unified Theory of Human Cardiovascular Disease Leading the Way to the Abolition of This Disease as a Cause for Human Mortality M Rath, L Pauling - J Ortho Med, 1992 -

(16)  J App Nut, Vol 48, N 3, 1996 Nutritional Supplement Program Halts Progression of early coronary atherosclerosis Documented by UltraFast Computed Tomography by Matthias Rath, M.D. and Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Ph.D.

(17) Mol Cell Biochem. 1992 Apr;111(1-2):41-7.
Protective role of ascorbic acid against lipid peroxidation and myocardial injury. Chakrabarty S, Nandi A, Mukhopadhyay CK, Chatterjee IB. Department of Biochemistry, University College of Science, Calcutta, India.

(18) Atherosclerosis. 2001 Sep;158(1):1-12.
Hyperglycemia-induced ascorbic acid deficiency promotes endothelial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis.Price KD, Price CS, Reynolds RD.

(19) Am J Clin Nutr. 1970 Jan;23(1):27-30.  Ascorbic acid and atherosclerosis.Shaffer CF.

(20) Vitamins E and C in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Men. The Physicians' Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trial  - JAMA-EXPRESS,  Howard D. Sesso et al. JAMA. 2008;300(18):2123-2133.

(21) Vitamin C, Collagen, and Cracks in the Plaque, by Peter Libby, MD; Masanori Aikawa, MD PhD . Circulation. 2002;105:1396-1398

(22) Epidemiology. 1992 May;3(3):194-202. Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population.Enstrom JE, Kanim LE, Klein MA.School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles 90024.

(23) American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 80, No. 6, 1508-1520, December 2004 . Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts . Paul Knekt et al.

Am J Public Health. 2004 May; 94(5): 870–875.  Vitamin C Deficiency and Depletion in the United States: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994 Jeffrey S Hampl, et al. 

(24) The Unified Theory, The Long Neglected Theory of Cardiovascular and Heart Disease By Owen Richard Fonorow 2002

(25) Health Articles by Owen Fonorow, Orthomolecular Naturopath (Orthomopath)  1996-2008 Owen Fonorow.

(26) Chapter 7 Practicing Medicine WIthout a License, Owen Fonorow,  summary of Pauling therapy to reverse heart disease

(27)  Vitamin C Foundation, Owen Fonorow

(28) Linus Pauling's Unified Theory of Human Cardiovascular Disease. The Collagen Connection Jim English and Hyla Cass, MD

(29)  Reducing the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease with Nutritional Supplements  M Rath. 

(30)   Chest. 2002;121:1589-1594.
Elevated Serum Lipoprotein(a) Level Is an Independent Marker of Severity of Thoracic Aortic Atherosclerosis Marcel Peltier, MD et al.

(31) Arteriosclerosis. 1989 Sep-Oct;9(5):579-92. Detection and quantification of lipoprotein(a) in the arterial wall of 107 coronary bypass patients. Rath M, Niendorf A, Reblin T, Dietel M, Krebber HJ, Beisiegel U.

(32) Atherosclerosis. 1995 Mar;113(2):179-88.
Extraction of lipoprotein(a), apo B, and apo E from fresh human arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques.Reblin T et al.

(33) Journal of Lipid Research Volume 32, 1991 317
Quantification of apo[a] and apoB in human atherosclerotic lesions by Judith M. Pepin et al.

J Clin Invest. 1997 September 15; 100(6): 1493–1500.  Lipoprotein(a) vascular accumulation in mice. In vivo analysis of the role of lysine binding sites using recombinant adenovirus by S D Hughes et al.

(35) collagen and lysine crosslinking images.

(36) Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Oct 18;1472(1-2):408-11. Random nucleotide substitutions in primate nonfunctional gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the missing enzyme in L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis. Ohta Y, Nishikimi M.

(37) J. Biol. Chem., Vol. 269, Issue 18, 13685-13688, 05, 1994  Cloning and chromosomal mapping of the human nonfunctional gene for L- gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the enzyme for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis missing in man. by M Nishikimi et al.

(38) PNAS January 18, 2000 vol. 97 no. 2 841-846
Aortic wall damage in mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid by Nobuyo Maeda et al.

(39) Yale J Biol Med. 1985 Nov-Dec;58(6):553-9. Regulation of collagen biosynthesis by ascorbic acid: a review. by Pinnell SR.

(40) Published in Volume 100, Issue 3 J. Clin. Invest. 100(3): 558-564 (1997). Modification of apolipoprotein(a) lysine binding site reduces atherosclerosis in transgenic mice. N W Boonmark et al.

(41) J Clin Invest (1997) 100: 558-64. Modification of apolipoprotein(a) lysine binding site reduces atherosclerosis in transgenic mice by NW Boonmark et al.

Collagen consists of three polypeptide chains, termed alpha chains, which are arranged in a parallel triple helix.

(43) A Simple Preventive and Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Jonathan Campbell, Health Consultant Natural Therapies for Chronic Illness & Health Maintenance

(44) L-Proline, L-Lysine 275 mg/275 mg, 120 tablets Item Catalog Number: 2117  $14.16. Life Extension Vitamin Compnay.

(45) CardioRetinometry Dr. Sydney J Bush. PhD. DOpt. (IOSc. London)  Optic nerve heads (Disc) Before Vitamin C   2002,  After Vitamin C 2004, 

(46) CardioRetinometry 23 July 2004 Sydney J Bush, Optometrist. CardioRetinometrist 20-22 Brook St. HULL HU2 8LA

(47) Inai Y et al. (2003), “The Whole Structure of the Human Non-Functional L-Guluno-gamma-Lactone Oxidase Gene - the Gene Responsible for Scurvy - and the Evolution of Repetitive Sequences Thereon,” J Nutr Sci Vitaminology 49:315-319.

(48) J. Biol. Chem., Vol. 267, Issue 30, 21967-21972, Oct, 1992 . Guinea pigs possess a highly mutated gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the key enzyme for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis missing in this species. M Nishikimi, T Kawai and K Yagi

(49) MMWR Weekly - Decline in CVD Death Rates, Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Decline in Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke -- United States, 1900-1999  

(50) Vitamin C Foundation Message Board

(51) Modification of apolipoprotein(a) lysine binding site reduces atherosclerosis in transgenic mice.J Clin Invest. 1997;100(3):558–564. N W Boonmark, X J Lou, Z J Yang, K Schwartz, J L Zhang, E M Rubin and R M Lawn

(52)   Can Med Assoc J. 1957 July 15; 77(2): 106–109.  The Reversibility of Atherosclerosis by G. C. Willis.

(53) EXPERIMENTAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS WITH ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY by FUJITANI TAKAO Japanese circulation journal 35(12), 1559-1565, 1971-12  Japanese Circulation Society

(54)  PNAS January 18, 2000 vol. 97 no. 2 841-846 . Aortic wall damage in mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid. Nobuyo Maeda et al.

(55) CardioRetinometry. Dr. Sydney J Bush. PhD. DOpt. (IOSc. London)

(56)  J Applied Nutrition, V48, N3, 1996. Nutritional Supplement Program Halts Progression of Early Coronary Atherosclerosis Documented by Ultrafast Computed Tomggraphy. Matthias Rath, M.D. and Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Ph.D.

(57)  Case Report: Lysine/Ascorbate-Related Amelioration of Angina Pectoris Linus Pauling. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. 6, Nos. 3 & 4, 1991

(58)  Track Your Plaque Web Site by William Davis MD.

(59) JAMA. 2008;300(18):2123-2133. Vitamins E and C in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Men. The Physicians' Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trial. Howard D. Sesso et al.

(60) Epidemiology. 1992 May;3(3):194-202. Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Enstrom JE, Kanim LE, Klein MA.

(61) American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 80, No. 6, 1508-1520, December 2004. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts. Paul Knekt et al.

(62) Stroke. 2000;31:2287-2294 Serum Vitamin C Concentration Was Inversely Associated With Subsequent 20-Year Incidence of Stroke in a Japanese Rural Community. The Shibata Study

(63) Plasma Vitamin C Modifies the Association Between Hypertension and Risk of Stroke S. Kurl, MD; T.P. Tuomainen, MD; J.A. Laukkanen, MD; K. Nyyssönen, PhD; T. Lakka, MD, PhD; J. Sivenius, MD, PhD; J.T. Salonen, MD, PhD, MscPH

(64)  Practicing Medicine Without A License ? The Story of the Pauling Therapy for Heart Disease By Owen Fonorow with Sally Jewell Copyright 2008


(66)  A Unified Theory of Human Cardiovascular Disease Leading the Way to the Abolition of This Disease as a Cause for Human Mortality Matthias Rath M.D. and Linus Pauling Ph.D.  Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. 7, No. 1, 1992

(67) Stop America's #1 Killer by Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD (2006)

Bioidentical Hormones 101 by author dr dach. jeffrey dach md

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